Language and the "naming" of the Tao is regarded negatively in Taoism; the Tao fundamentally exists and operates outside the realm of differentiation and linguistic constraints.. Bronze scripts for dao 道 occasionally include an element of shou 手 "hand" or cun 寸 "thumb; hand", which occurs in dao 導 "lead". The archaic pronunciation of Tao sounded approximately like drog or dorg. , Zhu Xi, Cheng Ho, and Cheng Yi perceived the Dao in the context of li (Principle) and t'ien li (the Principle of Heaven). The Chinese language is written in a logosyllabic style, while English and other European languages are phonogramatic. Taoism as a religion began in the year 142 C.E. Confucianism regards the Way, or Truth, as concordant with a particular approach to life, politics, and tradition. While you will be able to view the content of this page in your current browser, you will not be able to get the full visual experience. This last name is most numerous in China, where it is borne by 2,898,292 people, or 1 in 472. It is held as equally necessary and well regarded as De (virtue) and ren (humanity). It may be considered the mother of the universe. This involves meditative and moral practices. [note 3] Much of Taoist philosophy centers on the cyclical continuity of the natural world, and its contrast to the linear, goal-oriented actions of human beings. They feel that using 'the' gives Westerners the idea that the Tao is a metaphysical reality, by which they mean a thing (in the widest sense) or an absolute being like a god. Each school of philosophy has its tao, its doctrine of the way in which life should be ordered. The Tao causes the people to be fully in accord with the ruler. Confucianism was largely a moral system emphasizing the values of humaneness, righteousness, and filial duty, and so conceived De in terms of obedience to rigorously defined and codified social rules. The multitudinous branches of religious Taoism accordingly regard the Tao, and interpret writings about it, in innumerable ways. And if one does this one can translate 'achieving union with the Tao' into 'developing oneself so as to live in complete conformity with the teachings of the Tao' which is easier to understand, and closer to the truth. The word "Tao" (道) has a variety of meanings in both ancient and modern Chinese language. '", The Dao, or Way, of Confucius can be said to be 'Truth'. The manifestation of the Tao is De, which rectifies and invigorates the world with the Tao's radiance. also Dao n. 1. Each school of philosophy has its tao, its doctrine of the way in which life should be ordered. 2. For example, the Chinese Hanyu Da Zidian dictionary defines 39 meanings for dào 道 "way; path" and 6 for dǎo 道 (導) "guide; lead"..  Particular things (things with names) that manifest from the Tao have their own inner nature that they follow, in accordance with the Tao, and the following of this inner nature is De. Besides these common 4th and 3rd tonal specifications dào 道 "way" and dǎo 道 (or 導) "guide", 道 has a rare 1st level tone dāo pronunciation in the regional idiomatic expression shénshendāodāo 神神道道 "odd; bizarre".  According to Kirkland, "most scholars who have seriously studied Daoism, both in Asia and the West, have finally abandoned the simplistic dichotomy of Dàojiā and Dàojiào, 'philosophical Daoism' and 'religious Daoism. ‘The classic Tao-te-Ching or ' Book of the Way and its Virtue ', attributed to Lao-tzu, sets out the principles for leading this higher life.’ The self steeped in the Tao is the self grounded in its place within the natural Universe. The Zhuangzi (also spelled Chuang Tzu) uses literary devices such as tales, allegories, and narratives to relate the Tao to the reader, illustrating a metaphorical method of viewing and expressing the Tao. , Some scholars make sharp distinctions between moral or ethical usage of the word "Tao" that is prominent in Confucianism and religious Taoism and the more metaphysical usage of the term used in philosophical Taoism and most forms of Mahayana Buddhism; others maintain that these are not separate usages or meanings, seeing them as mutually inclusive and compatible approaches to defining the principle.  Either dào 道 "the thing which is doing the conducting" is a Tone B (shangsheng 上聲 "rising tone") "endoactive noun" derivation from dào 導 "conduct", or dào 導 is a Later Old Chinese (Warring States period) "general tone C" (qusheng 去聲 "departing tone") derivation from dào 道 "way". During the Tang dynasty, Han Yu further formalized and defined Confucian beliefs as an apologetic response to Buddhism. A number of later scholars adopted this interpretation, such as Tai Chen during the Qing Dynasty. It is the source of the Universe and the seed of its primordial purity resides in all things. The primarily idea and focus of Taoism is the Tao (way, path), which is important to be followed, not taking any action that is contrary to nature and … Boodberg noted that the shou 首 "head" phonetic in the dao 道 character was not merely phonetic but "etymonic", analogous with English to head meaning "to lead" and "to tend in a certain direction," "ahead," "headway".  The Tao is "eternally nameless" (Tao Te Ching-32. Taoism perceives the Tao as a natural order underlying the substance and activity of the Universe. De (德 "power; virtue; integrity") is the term generally used to refer to proper adherence to the Tao; De is the active living or cultivation of the way. 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