[148] On 29 January 2010, a group of ten American Baptist missionaries from Idaho attempted to cross the Haiti-Dominican Republic border with 33 Haitian children. Tuesday afternoon, January 12th, the worst earthquake in 200 years - 7.0 in magnitude - struck less than ten miles from the Caribbean city of Port-au-Prince, Haiti. "Even before the national registry fell under the rubble, land tenure was always a complex and contentious issue in Haiti. [5] The government of Haiti estimated that 250,000 residences and 30,000 commercial buildings had collapsed or were severely damaged. [263] Amnesty International reported that armed men were preying with impunity on girls and women in displacement camps, worsening the trauma of victims who have lost homes, livelihoods and loved ones. [174], At the peak of the relief efforts, the airport was in a state of chaos. Looting—restrained in the early days following the quake—became more prevalent in the absence of sufficient supplies and was exacerbated in the capital by the escape of several thousand prisoners from the damaged penitentiary. [57], Roads were blocked with road debris or the surfaces broken. In an interview, Kenneth Merten, the United States Ambassador to Haiti, stated that the US justice system would not interfere and that "the Haitian justice system will do what it has to do. [55], The quake seriously damaged the control tower at Toussaint L'Ouverture International Airport. 15% of the camps had no basic protection services,[clarification needed] and 48% no health services. Hundreds of thousands of survivors were displaced. [175][176] The supply backup at the airport was expected to ease as the apron management improved, and when the perceived need for heavy security diminished. In 2016 Haiti was struck by Hurricane Matthew which leveled entire communities and caused an upsurge in the ongoing cholera epidemic which was introduced to the island by United Nations peacekeepers. The river—the longest on the island and a major source of drinking water there—had been contaminated with fecal matter carrying a South Asian strain of cholera bacteria. The unpublished report put the death toll between 46,000 and 85,000 and put the number of displaced persons at 895,000, of which only 375,000 remained in temporary shelters. CNN Editorial Research. [16] Also killed were a number of well-known Haitian musicians[110] and sports figures, including thirty members of the Fédération Haïtienne de Football. [243][244], Several organizations of the US building industry and government, such as the Department of Homeland Security and the International Code Council, among others, reported that they were compiling a "Haiti Toolkit" coordinated by the National Institute of Building Sciences. 2010 Haiti earthquake, large-scale earthquake that occurred January 12, 2010, on the West Indian island of Hispaniola, comprising the countries of Haiti and the Dominican Republic. [81] A representative of Catholic Relief Services has estimated that about two million Haitians lived as squatters on land they did not own. [23], Haiti is the poorest country in the Western Hemisphere and is ranked 149th of 182 countries on the Human Development Index. The earthquake's epicentre was 25 km west of Port-au-Prince, the capital. "[269], On 25 August 2012, recovery was hampered due to Tropical Storm Isaac impacting Haiti's southern peninsula. Parliamentary elections were held in August 2015, and a second round, alongside a presidential election, was held in October 2015. It was estimated that some three million people were affected by the quake—nearly one-third of the country’s total population. [238] After the earthquake, thousands of Port-au-Prince residents began returning to the rural towns they came from. Secretary of State Hillary Clinton visited Haiti on 16 January to survey the damage and stated that US$48 million had been raised already in the US to help Haiti recover. Joel Boutroue, a Haitian government advisor, said that this number would cover "100 percent of the urban area", and observed that it would mean the Red Cross had served every city in Haiti. Focal mechanism solutions indicate that rupture occurred on either a right-lateral southeast-striking fault or on a left-lateral west-southwest-striking fault. [270][271] In late October, with over 370,000 still living in tent camps, a second tropical storm, Hurricane Sandy, killed 55 and left large portions of Haiti under water. [20] Communication systems, air, land, and sea transport facilities, hospitals, and electrical networks had been damaged by the earthquake, which hampered rescue and aid efforts; confusion over who was in charge, air traffic congestion, and problems with prioritising flights further complicated early relief work. Millions were spent on ad campaigns telling people to wash their hands. The toolkit would comprise building technology resources and best practices for consideration by the Haitian government with the goal of creating a more resilient infrastructure to prevent future losses of life. [30] Strong shaking associated with intensity IX on the Modified Mercalli scale (MM) was recorded in Port-au-Prince and its suburbs. [10] In mid February 2010, the Haitian government reported the death toll to have reached 230,000. [226] On top of matching donations, International Co-operation Minister Bev Oda pledged an additional C$290 million in long-term relief to be spent between 2010 and 2012, including C$8 million in debt relief to Haiti, part of a broader cancellation of the country's overall World Bank debt. The earthquake damaged structures and killed 18 people. October: A cholera outbreak begins and … The country also suffered from shortages of fuel and potable water even before the disaster. As of February 2010[update] the water level was low, but engineer Yves Gattereau believed the dam could collapse during the rainy season, which would flood Grand-Goâve 12 km (7.5 mi) downstream. [197] Nearly 2,000 rescuers had arrived from 43 different groups, with 161 search dogs; the airport had handled 250 tons of relief supplies by the end of the weekend. [257], In October, a cholera epidemic broke out, probably introduced by United Nations peacekeepers. In 2017, the United Nations reported that 2.5 million Haitians were still in need of humanitarian aid. On January 12, 2010, a 7.0 magnitude earthquake-ravaged Haiti. The data shows that some crucial sectors face particularly large funding gaps. [274] A 2013 survey disclosed that of the 1.5 million Haitians living in camps following the quake, about 279,000 remained in a total of 352 camps. According to U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention it is considered the worst epidemic of cholera since the 1994 outbreak in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (called Zaire at that time). [204] The Navy had conducted 336 air deliveries, delivered 32,400 US gallons (123,000 L) of water, 532,440 bottles of water, 111,082 meals and 9,000 lb (4,100 kg) of medical supplies by 20 January. As the spring rainy season and summer hurricane season approached with reconstruction efforts having made little progress, residents of tent settlements were encouraged by aid agencies to construct more-substantial dwellings using tarpaulins and, later, donated lumber and sheet metal. "[208] By 9 March 2010, all but Silsby were deported and she remained incarcerated. Taking children out of the country would permanently separate thousands of children from their families—a separation that would compound the acute trauma they are already suffering and inflict long-term damage on their chances of recovery. [36] Preliminary analysis of the slip distribution found amplitudes of up to about 4 m (13 ft) using ground motion records from all over the world. [255], In October 2010, Refugees International characterized the aid agencies as dysfunctional and inexperienced saying,"The people of Haiti are still living in a state of emergency, with a humanitarian response that appears paralyzed". The earthquake that devastated Haiti Tuesday was the strongest temblor to hit the island nation in more than 200 years. [260], In January 2012, two years since the quake, figures released by the United Nations show that of the nearly US$4.5 billion pledged for reconstruction projects in 2010 and 2011, only 43% has been delivered. "[265] The Interim Haiti Recovery Commission, led by former US President Bill Clinton and Haitian Prime Minister Jean-Max Bellerive, had been set up to facilitate the flow of funds toward reconstruction projects in April 2010, but as of January 2011, no major reconstruction had started. He described damage done by an earthquake in 1751, writing that "only one masonry building had not collapsed" in Port-au-Prince; he also wrote that the "whole city collapsed" in the 1770 Port-au-Prince earthquake. The announcement came after Ban received a report from a UN adviser who claimed that the epidemic “would not have broken out but for the actions of the United Nations.” In addition, the adviser urged the UN to provide compensation to the victims. However, there were still occasional recoveries of people who had managed to survive such confinement for weeks by rationing the meagre supplies available to them. Human Rights Groups Urge Immediate Changes I...", "Tropical Storm Isaac douses Haiti, killing 4 before crossing Cuba and aiming at Florida", Aid workers prep Haiti's tent city residents for Isaac's onlsaught – World News, "65 dead as Hurricane Sandy crosses Caribbean; 'the whole south is under water,' says Haitian PM (with video)", "Haiti's disaster risk management and recovery experience showcased at GFDRR meeting", "LOOK: Haiti 3 Years Later: Where Has The Money Gone? Normally, the airport, with a single runway and 10 spaces for large planes, handled 20 flights a day. Over 188,383 houses were badly damaged and 105,000 were destroyed by the earthquake (293,383 in total), 1.5m people became homeless 6. Operations to rescue those trapped under the wreckage—which had freed over 100 people—had mostly ceased two weeks into the crisis, as hope that anyone could have survived for that length of time without food or water began to fade. [284], 12 January 2010 magnitude 7.0 Mw earthquake, Charles, Jacqueline, Clark, Lesley, Robles, Frances, Charles, Jacqueline, Clark, Lesley, Robles, Frances, Trention, Daniel, Charles, Jacqueline, Pressoir, Jean-Cyril, Brecher, Elinor, Ian Rawson, managing director, Hôpital Albert Schweitzer, Deschapelles. [91][92], Towns in the eastern Dominican Republic began preparing for tens of thousands of refugees, and by 16 January hospitals close to the border had been filled to capacity with Haitians. [267], A January 2012 Oxfam report said that a half a million Haitians remained homeless, still living under tarps and in tents. It was simply designed as a vehicle for donors to funnel multinationals' and NGOs' project contracts. An estimated 26 million cubic yards (20 million cubic meters) remained, making most of the capital impassable,[244] and thousands of bodies remained in the rubble. "[70] Port-au-Prince had no municipal petrol reserves and few city officials had working mobile phones before the earthquake, making communications and transportation very difficult. [6], Appeals for humanitarian aid were issued by many aid organizations, the United Nations[116] and president René Préval. [56] Damage to the Port-au-Prince seaport[57] rendered the harbor unusable for immediate rescue operations; its container crane subsided severely at an angle because of weak foundations. Easing refugee immigration into Canada was discussed by Canadian Prime Minister Stephen Harper,[141] and in the US Haitians were granted Temporary protected status, a measure that permits about 100,000 illegal alien Haitians in the United States to stay legally for 18 months, and halts the deportations of 30,000 more, though it does not apply to Haitians outside the US. The number of people in relief camps of tents and tarps since the quake was 1.6 million, and almost no transitional housing had been built. The last major earthquake near Hispaniola, a magnitude 8.0 in … More than 600,000 people left Port-au-Prince to stay with families outside the capital. [234] Around 2,000 Haitians applied for this offer. [223] By 8 February 2010, the federal International Co-operation Department, through the Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA), had already provided about C$85 million in humanitarian aid through UN agencies, the International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies and to organizations such as CARE, Médecins du Monde, Save the Children, Oxfam Quebec, the Centre for International Studies and co-operation, and World Vision. The epicentre was just 25 km west of the capital Port-au-Prince and the focus was only 13km below the surface. In many cases land ownership was never officially registered. Numerous other claims did not hold up under investigation. Raymond Joseph, Haiti's ambassador to the United States,[117] and his nephew, singer Wyclef Jean,[118] who was called upon by Préval to become a "roving ambassador" for Haiti,[119] also pleaded for aid and donations. "[164] First responders voiced frustration with the number of relief trucks sitting unused at the airport. [274], The 2010 cholera outbreak has continued. General counsel for the American Red Cross, David Meltzer, provided investigators with the NGO's official statistics, but would not elaborate on them. René Préval to defer legislative elections that had been scheduled for the end of February. The situation was complicated by the lack of room on ramps for planes to unload their cargo, and some planes did not have enough fuel to leave. Haiti’s parliament was dissolved in January 2015, having lost its mandate to govern. The hospitals had to perform many amputations. On average, a plane would land or take off every two minutes. [29] [89] Mass graves were dug in a large field outside the settlement of Titanyen, north of the capital; tens of thousands of bodies were reported as having been brought to the site by dump truck and buried in trenches dug by earth movers. The Dutch radio channels 3FM, Radio 538 and Radio Veronica all broadcast under the name of Radio555, funded by a contribution of €80 million. [280] In a 2013 statement, the American Red Cross reported that almost all of the money collected for quake relief has been spent or is scheduled for making progress permanent by ensuring people can leave camps and return to stable communities, which includes building new homes, repairing homes, completing a new hospital and clinic, and signing an agreement for a second hospital. Although that area was cleared by July 2012, countrywide some 500 camps still remained at the end of the year. Port-au-Prince's morgues were overwhelmed with tens of thousands of bodies. I can only think that their priority must be somewhere else. [196], Over the first weekend 130,000 food packets and 70,000 water containers were distributed to Haitians, as safe landing areas and distribution centers such as golf courses were secured. The report stated: "One year on, only five percent of the rubble has been cleared and only 15 percent of the required basic and temporary houses have been built. It worked with its partners within the International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement, particularly the Haitian Red Cross and the International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies. [69][101] Lt. Gen. P.K. Efforts to level the worst such buildings, some of which precariously gripped the rims of ravines, were hampered by irate residents who refused to leave. [159] Ophelia Dahl, director of Partners in Health, reported, "there are hundreds of thousands of injured people. It was set up in eight hours and began operations on the evening of 16 January. [51][52] A hospital in Pétion-Ville, a wealthy suburb of Port-au-Prince, also collapsed,[53] as did the St. Michel District Hospital in the southern town of Jacmel,[54] which was the largest referral hospital in south-east Haiti. Early reports indicate severe devastation. ", "Earthquake leaves Haiti 'worse than a war zone, "Fears of major catastrophe as 7.0 quake rocks Haiti", "Magnitude 7.0 – HAITI REGION Tectonic Summary", "Earthquake in Haiti: Gone in 30 seconds", "Complex rupture during the 12 January 2010 Haiti earthquake", "Magnitude 7.0 – HAITI REGION USGS Community Internet Intensity Map", "More than 2 million affected by earthquake, Chile's president says", "Haiti quake: The worst of places for a big tremor", "Finite Fault Model Preliminary Result of the 12 January 2010 Mw 7.0 Haiti Earthquake", "NGY Seismology Note No.24 (in Japanese)", "Deformation of Jamaica and motion of the Gonâve microplate from GPS and seismic data", "Entiquillo-Plantain Garden Strike-Slip Fault Zone: A Major Seismic Hazard Affecting Dominican Republic, Haiti and Jamaica", "Haiti/ Menace de Catastrope Naturelle / Risque sismique élevé sur Port-au-Prince", "New aid arrives, but aftershock rattles Haiti", "Aftershock Rattles Nerves in Haitian Capital", "Haitians flee in fear as big aftershock hits", Haiti earthquake: reaching victims outside the capital, "Many casualties expected after big quake in Haiti", "In Petit Paradis, earthquake then tsunami", "Aid workers face frightening challenges in wake of massive quake in Haiti", "Only one hospital open in Haiti's quake-hit capital", "Major earthquake off Haiti causes hospital to collapse", "Haitians show fortitude in face of disaster", "UN provides generator for a hospital in Haiti", "Haiti seaport damage complicates relief efforts", Statement From Digicel on Haiti Earthquake, "Update from Trilogy: five employees killed in Haiti", "Earthquake Sets Back Haiti's Efforts to Improve Telecommunications", "Haïti: les rescapés évacués à la Martinique décrivent le "chaos, "Info – Séisme à Haïti: les autorités s'attendent au pire", "Haiti's president narrowly missed injury in quake", "U.S. It's just like the stories we are told of the Holocaust – thousands of bodies everywhere. Geologists initially blamed the earthquake on the movement of the Caribbean tectonic plate eastward along the Enriquillo–Plantain Garden (EPG) strike-slip fault system. [105] However, an investigation by Radio Netherlands has questioned the official death toll, reporting an estimate of 92,000 deaths as being a more realistic figure. Engineers have stated that it is unlikely many buildings would have stood through any kind of disaster. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). Without adequate reinforcement, the buildings disintegrated under the force of the quake, killing or trapping their occupants. A US State Department spokesperson said the report had inconsistencies and would not be released until they were resolved. [163] Four other MSF aircraft were also turned away. This included all hospitals in the capital; air, sea, and land transport facilities; and communication systems. The magnitude 7.0 quake … In October 2013 a U.S.-based group, the Institute for Justice and Democracy in Haiti, filed a lawsuit in New York City against the UN, seeking compensation on behalf of Haitians affected by the epidemic. [219] On 14 January, the US government announced it would give US$100 million to the aid effort and pledged that the people of Haiti "will not be forgotten". [139] Some online poker sites hosted poker tournaments with tournament fees, prizes or both going to disaster relief charities. After the process for the adoption of 400 children by families in the US and the Netherlands was expedited,[145] Unicef and SOS Children urged an immediate halt to adoptions from Haiti. Countless dwellings were reduced to rubble, while hospitals, churches and schools collapsed and roads were blocked with debris. 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